Vincent Van Gogh is a well-known artist for its colorful painting. He painted a lot of paintings in Provence. He came here in 1888. He lived in Arles for a while. At this time, he came to Les Saintes Maries de la Mer at the beginning of june 1888. At this time, the village only count few cabanes de gardians and houses build around the church. There was around 800 inhabitants : fishermen, guardians and peasants.
In his exchanges with his brother Theo, he talked about his one-week stay at the Saintes Maries de la Mer. He tells him he wants to paint "the effect of a blue sea and a blue sky". He makes three paintings and 11 drawings. His stay in Arles ended in 1889 after having made nearly 300 works. He was then interned in the asylum of Saint-Rémy-de-Provence.